TOEFL Essential Vocabulary VIII


Here are 45 vocabulary words related to science and technology, along with their definitions:

  • Abstract: A summary or brief overview of a scientific article or research paper.

  • Algorithm: A step-by-step procedure or set of rules used to solve a problem or complete a task.

  • Analysis: The process of examining something in detail to understand its components or structure.

  • Application: The practical use or implementation of scientific knowledge or technology.

  • Catalyst: A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process.

  • Conduction: The transfer of heat or electricity through a medium, such as a solid or a conductor.

  • Conserve: To protect or preserve something, such as natural resources or energy.

  • Convergent: Coming together or meeting at a point or common focus.

  • Data: Information, facts, or statistics collected for analysis or reference.

  • Density: The degree of compactness or mass per unit volume of a substance or object.

  • Ecosystem: A community of living organisms and their interactions with the environment.

  • Efficiency: The ability to achieve maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or resources.

  • Emission: The release or discharge of substances, such as gases or particles, into the environment.

  • Equilibrium: A state of balance or stability between opposing forces or factors.

  • Exponential: Growing or increasing at an extremely fast rate or in a pattern of constant multiplication.

  • Extract: To remove or obtain a specific component or substance from a mixture or source.

  • Forecast: To predict or estimate future events or trends based on available data or patterns.

  • Friction: The resistance encountered when one object moves in contact with another object.

  • Gene: A unit of hereditary information that is passed from parent to offspring and determines traits.

  • Genome: The complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism.

  • Hypothesis: A proposed explanation or prediction based on limited evidence, which can be tested.

  • Innovation: The introduction of new ideas, methods, or technologies that lead to significant improvements.

  • Kinetic: Relating to or resulting from motion or movement.

  • Magnitude: The size, extent, or importance of something, often measured on a numerical scale.

  • Nanotechnology: The science and engineering of manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular scale.

  • Organic: Relating to or derived from living organisms or matter containing carbon atoms.

  • Paradox: A statement or situation that appears contradictory but may reveal a deeper truth.

  • Photosynthesis: The process by which green plants and some other organisms convert sunlight into energy.

  • Precision: The quality of being exact, accurate, or consistent in measurement or performance.

  • Quantum: Relating to or involving the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics.

  • Reactant: A substance that undergoes a chemical change in a chemical reaction.

  • Resistant: Having the ability to withstand or withstand the effects of something.

  • Saturation: The state or process of being fully soaked or filled to capacity.

  • Solar: Relating to or powered by the energy of the sun.

  • Synthesize: To combine different elements or components to form a coherent whole.

  • Technology: The application of scientific knowledge and tools to solve practical problems.

  • Theoretical: Based on or concerned with theories, abstract principles, or hypothetical situations.

  • Transistor: A semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

  • Ultraviolet: Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than visible light but longer than X-rays.

  • Variable: A factor or quantity that is susceptible to change or variation.

  • Velocity: The speed of an object in a particular direction, often measured in meters per second.

  • Virus: A microscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the cells of living organisms.

  • Wavelength: The distance between two consecutive points in a wave, such as light or sound.

  • Xenophobia: The fear, dislike, or prejudice against people from other countries or cultures.

  • Zoology: The branch of biology that deals with the study of animals, their behavior, and classification.

These vocabulary words cover a range of scientific and technological concepts and should be helpful for TOEFL preparation in these areas.

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