Subordinating Conjunctions.


A subordinating conjunction is a type of conjunction that connects a dependent clause to an independent clause, creating a subordinate or dependent relationship between the two clauses. The dependent clause cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and relies on the independent clause to provide meaning. Subordinating conjunctions are used to show various relationships between the two clauses, such as cause and effect, time, condition, contrast, concession, purpose, and more.

Here are some commonly used subordinating conjunctions and their explanations with examples:

1. Because: 

  • It shows cause and effect.


  • She couldn't attend the party because she was feeling unwell.

2. Although: 

  • It introduces a contrast or concession. Example: Although it was raining, they decided to go for a walk.

3. If: 

  • It introduces a conditional clause.


  • If you study hard, you will pass the exexam.

4. When: 

  • It indicates time or a specific condition.


  • I will call you when I arrive home. 

5. While: 

  • It indicates two actions happening simultaneously.


  • She read a book while waiting for the bus. 

6. Since: 

  • It indicates a reason or cause.


  • Since it's getting late, we should leave now.

7. Until: 

  • It indicates a point in time or condition that needs to be reached.


  • They played games until it got dark.

8. Unless: 

  • It introduces a condition that must be met for something else to happen. 


  • She won't go out unless her friends come along.

9. Provided that: 

  • It introduces a condition that must be fulfilled for something else to happen. 


  • You can borrow my car provided that you return it by tomorrow.

10. Although: 

  • It introduces a contrasting idea. Example: Although he is rich, he lives a simple life.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list, as there are several other subordinating conjunctions that can be used in different contexts to establish different relationships between clauses.

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