The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) exam assesses the English language proficiency of non-native English speakers. While the TOEFL does not have a specific section dedicated solely to grammar, grammatical knowledge is crucial for success in the reading, listening, speaking, and writing sections. Here are some important grammar topics that you should be familiar with for the TOEFL exam:

  • Parts of speech: Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

  • Verb tenses: Present simple, present continuous, present perfect, past simple, past continuous, past perfect, future simple, future continuous, and future perfect.

  • Sentence structure: Subject-verb agreement, word order, sentence types (declarative, interrogative, imperative, conditional), direct and indirect speech.

  • Articles: Proper use of definite articles (the) and indefinite articles (a/an).

  • Modifiers: Adjectives and adverbs, their placement and comparison.

  • Noun forms: Singular and plural nouns, countable and uncountable nouns, irregular plural forms.

  • Pronouns: Personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, reflexive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, indefinite pronouns.

  • Relative clauses: Using relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that) to create adjective clauses.

  • Conjunctions: Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or) and subordinating conjunctions (because, although, while).

  • Conditionals: First, second, and third conditionals (if clauses and result clauses).

  • Comparisons: Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs.

  • Gerunds and infinitives: Understanding when to use each form.

  • Passive voice: Construction and use of passive sentences.

  • Modal verbs: Can, could, may, might, will, would, should, must.

  • Idiomatic expressions: Common English idioms and phrasal verbs.

It's important to note that while these topics cover a wide range of grammar, the TOEFL exam focuses more on practical language use rather than explicit grammar rules. Therefore, it's crucial to practice using grammar in context and apply your knowledge to real-life situations.


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